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Active Directory Interview Questions and Answers

Active-Directory

1) Mention what is Active Directory?
An active directory is a directory structure used on Micro-soft Windows based servers and
computers to store data and information about networks and domains.
2) Mention what are the new features in Active Directory (AD) of Windows server 2012?
1.dcpromo (Domain Controller Promoter) with improved wizard: It allows you to view
all the steps and review the detailed results during the installation process
Enhanced Administrative Center: Compared to the earlier version of active directory,
the administrative center is well designed in Windows 2012. The exchange management
console is well designed
2.Recycle bin goes GUI: In windows server 12, there are now many ways to enable the
active directory recycle bin through the GUI in the Active Directory Administrative
Center, which was not possible with the earlier version
Fine grained password policies (FGPP): In windows server 12 implementing FGPP is
much easier compared to an earlier It allows you to create different password policies in
the same domain
3.Windows Power Shell History Viewer: You can view the Windows PowerShell
commands that relates to the actions you execute in the Active Directory Administrative
Center UI
3) Mention which is the default protocol used in directory services?
The default protocol used in directory services is LDAP ( Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol).
4) Explain the term FOREST in AD?
Forest is used to define an assembly of AD domains that share a single schema for the AD. All
DC’s in the forest share this schema and is replicated in a hierarchical fashion among them.
5) Explain what is SYSVOL?
The SysVOL folder keeps the server’s copy of the domain’s public files. The contents such as
users, group policy, etc. of the sysvol folders are replicated to all domain controllers in the
domain.
6) Mention what is the difference between domain admin groups and enterprise admins
group in AD?

Enterprise Admin GroupDomain Admin Group
Members of this group have
complete control of all domains in
the forest
Members of this group have
complete control of the domain
By default, this group belongs to
the administrators group on all
domain controllers in the forest
By default, this group is a member
of the administrators group on all
domain controllers, workstations
and member servers at the time
they are linked to the domain
As such this group has full control
of the forest, add users with caution
As such the group has full control in
the domain, add users with caution
7) Mention what system state data contains?
System state data contains
- Contains startup files
- Registry
- Com + Registration Database
- Memory page file
- System files
- AD information
- SYSVOL Folder
- Cluster service information
8) Mention what is Kerberos?
Kerberos is an authentication protocol for network. It is built to offer strong authentication for
server/client applications by using secret-key cryptography.
9) Explain where does the AD database is held? What other folders are related to AD?
AD database is saved in %systemroot%/ntds. In the same folder, you can also see other files;
these are the main files controlling the AD structures they are
- dit
- log
- res 1.log
- log
- chk
10) Mention what is PDC emulator and how would one know whether PDC emulator is
working or not?

PDC Emulators: There is one PDC emulator per domain, and when there is a failed
authentication attempt, it is forwarded to PDC emulator. It acts as a “tie-breaker” and it
controls the time sync across the domain.
These are the parameters through which we can know whether PDC emulator is working or not.
Time is not syncing
User's accounts are not locked out
Windows NT BDCs are not getting updates
If pre-windows 2000 computers are unable to change their passwords
11) Mention what are lingering objects?
Lingering objects can exists if a domain controller does not replicate for an interval of time that
is longer than the tombstone lifetime (TSL).
12) Mention what is TOMBSTONE lifetime?
Tombstone lifetime in an Active Directory determines how long a deleted object is retained in
Active Directory. The deleted objects in Active Directory is stored in a special object referred as
TOMBSTONE. Usually, windows will use a 60- day tombstone lifetime if time is not set in the
forest configuration
13) Explain what is Active Directory Schema?
Schema is an active directory component describes all the attributes and objects that the
directory service uses to store data.
14) Explain what is a child DC?
CDC or child DC is a sub domain controller under root domain controller which share name
space
15) Explain what is RID Master?
RID master stands for Relative Identifier for assigning unique IDs to the object created in AD.
16) Mention what are the components of AD?
Components of AD includes
Logical Structure: Trees, Forest, Domains and OU
Physical Structures: Domain controller and Sites
17) Explain what is Infrastructure Master?
Infrastructure Master is accountable for updating information about the user and group and
global catalogue

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